EPA - Handcuffs
Epa - Symbol of Slavery
100% silk twill scarf (90 x 90 cm)
Color: royal blue/rich black/safety orange/spanish pink/glossy grape/hooker's green
Designed by Yaw Tony
Ref. : 001-2316-1D1955
Epa - Symbol of Slavery
Meaning: Epa literally refers to Handcuffs
Proverb: ‘Onii a, ne pa da wonsa, akowa nne wo’. Ono na wodan no.
Literal Translation: You are a slave to him whose handcuffs you wear. He is the one you serve
Meaning: The proverb signifies a mark of total servitude for subjects, that is, a sign of complete ownership for the captor or an authority. This symbol is also used for the production of adinkra cloth and other traditional prints.
Background: The institution of slavery existed in Asante, and the involuntary human servitude, was practiced across the length and breadth of Ghana. Many Asante societies recognized slaves merely as property, but others saw them as dependents who eventually might be integrated into the families of slave owners. Still, other societies allowed slaves to attain positions of military or administrative power. Most often, both slave owners and slaves were of different ethnic groups.
Traditional Asante practices of slavery were altered by the Arabs and Europeans who bought millions of slaves in West, Central, and East Africa and sent them to Europe. These two overlapping waves of transcontinental slave trading made the slave trade central to the economies of many African states and threatened many more Africans with enslavement. In Asante, most slavery resulted from wars. Warfare was not the only reason for the practice of slavery in Asante. In many Asante societies, slavery represented one of the few methods of producing wealth. The land was typically held communally by villages or large clans and was allotted to families according to their need and the amount of land a family needed was determined by the number of labourers that family could marshal to work the land. To increase production, a family had to invest in more slaves and therefore Asante societies conducted slave raids on distant villages. Slaves, taken in battle or in slave raids, were cut off from their kin; however, viewed as dependants over time, they became identified as members of their owners’ extended families and, after several generations, reintegrated into the new web of kinship. In addition to agricultural work, female slaves carried out other economic functions, such as trading, cotton spinning, and dyeing. They also performed domestic chores, such as preparing food, washing clothes, cleaning and some served in the royal palace. Asante captains and influential men kept female slaves as wives or concubines, and these women stood as symbols of male wealth. Ordinary male slaves typically farmed and craftsmen captured were attached to sub-chiefs who supervised them to work for the Otumfuo as weavers, potters, goldsmiths, construction, and metal workers. They also served as soldiers and confidants of high palace officials. The definitive characteristics of slaves are as follows: their labour or services are obtained through force; their physical beings are regarded as the property of another person, their owner; and they are entirely subject to their owner's will. Hand, neck, and foot cuffs were introduced as a result of the slave trade. They were used in securing, safeguarding, and for easy transportation of slaves from the slave markets from the hinterlands to the coast by slave traders. Cuffs later became popular among the chiefs and other law enforcement agencies in arresting offenders of the law. Anyone who is cuffed becomes a slave and captive of the captor.
Moral Value: The proverb reminds offenders of the uncompromising nature of the law. It, however, totally discourages and abhors all forms of physical, socio-economic, and mental slavery. This is a symbol of captivity and slavery.
Extract from Cultural Symbolism in Asante Traditional Textiles by ABRAHAM EKOW ASMAH
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